Abel Tasman National Park is famous for its numerous bays, islands and beaches. The most important inlets are the Ligar, Wainui, Goat and Awaroa Bay, the Tonga Roadstead, Bark and Torrent Bay as well as the Astrolabe Roadsted and the area around the Otuwhero Inlet. Adele, Fisherman, Tonga and the Tata Islands are the biggest islands that the park has to offer.

Granite is the most common type of rock that can be found throughout the park, as well as in several other parts in the South Island's northwest and in Fiordland. Granite is a composition of quartz, feldspar and smaller amounts of other minerals. Such deposits may contain limestone and/or marble such as the Harwood Hole cave system in the southwest of the park. The long sandy beaches are a remaining product of broken-down granite.

The park is mainly covered in dense, subtropical rainforest (over 75%) that reaches up to the park's highest points, Murray Peak (1101 m) and Mount Evans (1156 m). From here, several freshwater streams disperse over the Abel Tasman area. Some of these streams have created alluvial grounds on their shores that may contain precious metals such as gold.
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